Africa

Save Money, Save Energy, Eat Well!

Since the introduction of our line of Cookswell Energy Efficient Charcoal Ovens in 1992, thousands of ovens have been sold regionally and countrywide, to all manner of people for all manner of uses.

Bjarne Laustsen, January 2010, update November, 2010

Jiko Mbono is Swahili for Jatropha Stove.

This is an early version of the stove, it is now using That stove was an early prototype. It is no longer using whole seeds but instead pellets made from the pulp left over after the pressing of jatropha oil, although there is only one pelletization facility for this in Tanzania and no distribution arrangements. Now only, the Jiko Safi uses whole seeds.
The idea is to plant jatropha as a hedge around land holdings. Animals won’t eat it and around an average holding it produces enough seed for a family’s annual fuel needs. I agree that planting it as a crop isn’t ideal

*****

Jiko Mbono was developed for burning whole Jatropha seeds.
The stove is a TLUD (Top-Lit UpDraft) gasification stove with natural draft air supply.

Earlier development of Jatropha stoves have mainly been based on the use of Jatropha oil. But the use of Jatropha oil in stoves have had some problems. In wick stoves the problem have been on the high viscosity of the oil which makes it difficult to climb wick to feed the flame, this has caused the wick material to burn. Jatropha pressurised stoves have also the problems of keeping the nozzles clean, and also the complicated design which tends to make the stoves relative expensive.

I therefore got the idea to burn the seeds directly in the stove. If the gasification process could provide the heat in the stove to vaporize out the oil from the seeds in the form of gasses, that will save us the work of first mechanically pressing the oil out of the seeds.

I therefore started some experimentation with some simple stove design, and these first experiments showed that it was possible to burn the whole seeds in a stove. Further developments was however needed to get an efficient and user friendly design of the stove.

I contacted Dr. Hassan M. Rajabu from College of Engineering & Technology at University of Dar es Salaam so that we could further develop the stove and test the stove after each modification. In this development we have received valuable economical support from the US based organisation Partners for Development and also support from Pamoja INC. Engineer F. Lauwo from Tanzania Engineering and Manufacturing Design Organisation (TEMDO) have provided assistance in producing the prototypes of the stoves.


Diagram of Jiko Mbono.

The fire in the stove is normally started by having a few crushed seeds that are soaked in methylated spirit or kerosene. These crushed seeds are placed at the top of other seeds in the fuelbox and the fire is lit in these crushed seeds.
The initial process can be started inside the stove or outside. When some seeds at the top got good flames (3-5 minutes) the fuelbox is then placed on the shelve at the bottom of the stove door and the door is closed so the fuelbox get into its position in the centre of the stove. In this initial phase the primary air is kept fully open.

The pyrolysis of the seeds by supply of primary air will gradually build up and the gasses from the pyrolysis will raise by the draft from the stoves internal chimney and be burned at the top by mixing with the secondary air.

During this gradually build up of heat the primary air supply need to be reduced such that enough secondary air can be supplied to allow for a good combustion of the gasses.

The burning of the Jatropha seeds is undertaken in batch portions. After all the seeds in the fuelbox have been pyrolysis the fuelbox need to be taken out and refilled for a new burning. It is not possible at this stage of the development of the stove to refill the fuelbox when the stove is operating, such refilling will just results in heavy smoke.

With a full load of fuel 300 – 400 gram of Jatropha seeds the stove can burn for 1 to 1½ hour when used in real cooking where the fire is somehow turned down. During test we have recorded specific fuel consumption on around 52 gram seeds per liter of boiling water, and an energy efficiency around 44%. However, the high efficiency is atributed to the design of the top part of the stove where the top is inserted in a skirt.

When operated properly the carbon in the seeds will remain as some kind of charcoal.

The use of renewable fuel is important here in Tanzania, where most of the biomass fuels are harvested in natural forests which takes year to re-grow.
We have estimated that a household having 200 – 300 meters of hedges of Jatropha trees will be able to meet their own need of fuel for the household cooking. Jatropha is often planted as hedges, it is a good hedge plant, as it is not browsed by goats, cows or other animals. Also as a hedge plant it does not compete with food crops on cultivating areas.

For urban households in Tanzania Jatropha is a viable alternative to charcoal. A farmer here gets 150 Tsh for one kg of Jatropha seeds (exchange rate 1350 to $). In town the Jatropha seeds will sell for around 300 sh. An urban household will need around 2 kg seeds per day to meet their energy need for cooking, that gives a monthly energy bill of 18,000 sh. If the same households are using charcoal it will on average consume 3 bags of 30 kg charcoal of a price of not less than 15,000 sh, this gives a monthly energy bill of minimum 45,000 sh. The use of Jatropha will in this way represent a good saving and alternative to fuelwood and charcoal.

Other seeds and crop wates can also be used in the stove. We know that seeds from the Croton tree burns well so does Castor seeds. We have also tried and found that the shells from cashew nut burn well in the stove. These shells are mainly a waste product from small-scale Cashew nut processing plants which are scattered in regions growing cashew trees.. We also believe that other seeds such as the oil palm kernel could also burn well when cracked a little. There will likely be many other oil holding seeds that could be used in such a stove.

Crispin Pemberton-Pigott & Christa Roth, December, 2009


Chinese Draft Enhancer

Dear Friends

Working on advice brought by Cecil Cook from Lusaka, Peter Coughlin in
Maputo has tried using a short vertical tube (about 400mm) held over the
lighting charcoal to accelerate ignition. This tool is widely used in
Lusaka. It is typically 50mm in diameter and can be made from an piece of
scrap pipe or rolled metal sheet.

Peter reports that people using it have reported faster lighting and a
reduction in emissions during ignition (which is the smoky part of a
charcoal fire).

I tried a similar though larger tube over coal in a bucket and achieved a
dramatic reduction in particulate emissions - certainly more than 90%.

Regards
Crispin

This principle is not only limited to Zambia, it is pretty widely applied by other charcoal users in the region.
Though the most perfect 'chimney' I have got is from China: It came as a standard accessory packed in the carton of the Chinese coal-briquette stove marketed in South Africa under the name of 'Lotti stove'. I think the stove is manfuactured by Shengzhou. So it could be standard chinese practice. The conical shape with the two little air-holes on both sides shortly below the top works much better than a straight tube. We used one at stove camp this year on a two-can TLUD instead of the upper straight can and draft increased considerably. Foto attached, but not sure if it makes it on the list. regards, christa

A couple of the presentations from the ASEAN-US NEXT-GENERATION COOK STOVE WORKSHOP, November 19, 2009.

One is a great study by Dr. Modi of Columbia University of several stoves in Tanzania, and the other is some useful info from Tami Bond. Kirk also gave a very useful presentation, but unfortunately it was not included in the proceedings.

Laurens Rademakers, Biochar Fund
December, 2009

See the attachment for full sized pictures.

we've designed a new biomass stove that produces char. The stove is a simple hybrid of a rocket stove and a retort. We would be glad if you could upload it to the stoves list, because we want to see what the community thinks of it. It is only a concept, even though we've tested some basic design steps.

We will be testing this design at our large biochar site in Congo, where our project soon kicks off.

Michael Benedict, December, 2009


Toyola Energy Limited has been making efficient charcoal burning stoves, and selling theme in markets and door-to-door by Toyola “evangelists”, individuals who record each sale in a notebook and then are paid on commission. With 50,000 stoves projected to be sold this year and double that possible in 2010, the paper records are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain. Over the past six months Michael has been working with Toyola and E+Co, a US-based non-profit investment company investing in Toyola, to develop an SMS-based recordkeeping system for their stove sales.

Read the full article at http://thebenedict.wordpress.com

George Riegg, Greenie © For a Greenie-er Happier, Healthier Gambia
November, 2009

It's been just over a year now that you first kindly posted my "Greenie" concept paper. (Introducing Greenie )

Well, sometimes good things take their time especially if you have to work with very limited resources. But believe and perseverance finally have paid off !!!! :o)

With a local teachers association as lead agency and me acting as project developer and manager we have been awarded a small grant of US$ 10,000 under the UNDP GEF SGP to run a trial of our Greenie book dissemination initiative
- the little thing has been turned from a product into a teaching aid !

"This project has been conceptualised by the Artist and the Project Developer. To build the framework and implementation structure many local partners have contributed in the hope and believe that this way of dissemination and awareness building will make a real long lasting impact at every level of the community.

http://sgp.undp.org/web/projects/15081/building_capacity_on_environmenta...

At a project cost of US$ 2.00 per book 5,000 young children, their families and their communities can be reached. When implemented with care and skill it will help to improve many aspects of their way of life and their understanding and interaction with their environment."

Using a TLUD for Pasteurization at the Paramount Dairy in Uganda
John and Charles Anglin, Uganda, October 19, 2009
Pasteurization of 450Lts Milk Complete after 1.5hrs
Pasteurization of 450Lts Milk Complete after 1.5hrs

John and Charles Anglin have built an institutional / industrial size TLUD for pasteurization at their Paramount Dairy in Uganda. Their 2-page report with 4 photos describes and shows the TLUD and the 450 liter milk-vat. The fuel is papyrus reeds. This report is about a "work-in-progress," and they have given permission to post it to the Stoves Website. The Anglin's can be reached via the Stoves Listserv.

Courtesy of Paul Anderson

http://stpenergy.blogspot.com/

Teaching Renewable Energies and Sustainability in the School of Diogo Vaz (São Tomé, Africa)

This work aims to show how sustainability and renewable energies could benefit a rural area of Africa (in São Tomé) by means of using solar energy and biogas. Applying these technologies requires ingeniousness and little founding, the favourable outcomes are becoming less dependent of fossil fuels (wood, coal and gasoline) while saving time and, more importantly, the forest. We have taught how to design, build and operate systems for cooking, lighting and water-heating that use renewable sources of energy.

Project Title: Western Gasifier Stove Project
African Christians Organization Net work, Salim Mayeki Shaban, May 10, 2009

AFCON WorkshopAFCON Workshop

APPLICANT

Name of Organization: African Christians Organization Net work
Mailing Address: P.O.BOX 323, BUNGOMA 50200 Kenya
Physical Address: 1 st fl. KCB Building
Telephone: + 254 727 621841
Email: salimshaban2005 at gmail.com
Principal Officer: Salim Mayeki Shaban
Project Contact Person: Salim Mayeki Shaban Programme Coordinator and Everlyne Otunga Program Manager

PROJECT
Focal Area: Reducing indoor air Pollution and forest Conservation
Activity Category: Learning by Doing Project.

Proposed project Duration: Two Years.

FINANCES
Total Mount grants Request: (KSHS) 4,245,429.20 (USD) 62,241.3
Other Contributions (KSHS) 1,520,000.00
Grand Total (KSHS) 5,765,429.20
Exchange Rate kshs 70.00 = I Us$

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.1 GOAL OF THE PROJECT
To promote energy conservation and reduce deforestation in the sugar cane growing in Western Kenya.

.1.2.1 Specific Objectives
To Promote TLUD gasifier cookstoves and five biogas planter in Western Kenya
To provide and service 20,000 TLUD gasifier cookstoves and 5,000 fireless stoves..
To train 150 women and youth groups in production, repair and sale of energy saving equipment
To train schools and communities on energy conservation and use of renewable energy technologies.
To develop an energy equipment workshop for production, service and sale of improved cook stoves and energy saving equipment.

1.3 ACTIVITIES
The activities in the project will be
Community mobilization on energy conservation, forest resource management and effect of indoor air
Training in design, manufacturers and sale of renewable energy equipment and technologies i.e. biogas, TLUD gasifier cookstoves.
Networking on renewable energy conservation i.e. knowledge sharing and information dissemination.
Manufacture TLUD gasifier cookstoves, and five Biogas planters

2.0 STATEMENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH PARTNERS
This project will be carried out within the Nile Basin in Western Kenya. The same area is sources of Nile and other small tributaries. The project will promote energy saving culture and lead to sustainable use of forest resources while contributing towards the Kyoto protocol implementation. While noting that firewood is the major source of energy within the Nile basin and Methane, is 20 times more potent CO2 and hence its use in biogas energy is encouraged in managing green house effect.

3.0 PROJECT AREA
Western Kenya has a population of over 5 million people of which 80% depend on agriculture for livelihood and over 70% use firewood as fuel source. A survey has shown that all boarding schools use firewood and charcoal as fuel for cooking hence pressure on forest cover. Sugar cane growing in Mumias, Malava and Bungoma is a heavy user of trees as firewood. This combined has led to heavy exploitation of forests and trees for firewood hence a danger to the water catchments area.

4.0 PROBLEMS/CHALLENGE
Sugar cane cultivation in western Kenya, which started in mid 1970’s, has accelerated the rate of destruction of trees due to high population density has further compounded the problem of destruction of forests and trees hence threatening the very source of water within the Nile Basin. Schools continue to put pressure on forest due to their high demand for firewood to use in cooking with highly inefficient open fire stoves. These project will develop biogas as an alternative source of energy, promote economical use of energy in institutions and homesteads through use of energy saving stoves create employment for people trained in production and service of the same and of the same and efficiently generate and use the highly potent methane from farmlands through biogas plants.

5.0 RATIONALE
This project meets the requirements of MDG's and Partnership for clean indoor air broad objective. The project will support community driven effort and will address environmental threats on local scale within the Nile basin region in the area of development and use of alternative energy and construction materials. In the process of carrying out participatory planning and appraisals for Musamba, Matungu, Kholera and Khalaba, the villagers expressed the desire to get cheap alternative to fuel firewood energy and alternative to open fire 3-stone cooking method. In all this areas, villagers expressed their fears that trees are disappearing and as a result they use farm wastes like maize stalks for firewood. The same should be used to replenish soil fertility after the crop season and should not used in the kitchen as firewood. Others were resorting to cane trash and remnants.

See specific goals and objectives in the attached project document.

AFCONAFCON

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